- Conscription Organization
The Ministry of Interior is in charge of ROC national conscription administration. We are presently determined to effect the basic concept of Substitute service and also to renovate the entire ROC military conscription program. With these fundamental goals in mind, in March 2002, this Ministry set up a "Conscription Administration" which currently consists of nine operational units, including five departments and four administrative offices.
- Conscription System
As provided in Military Service Act of the Republic of China (the Act), the national military service concept shall be of a dual nature with an obligatory draft as the primary system and voluntary service as a secondary system. In addition, the Substitute Service also functions without prejudice to the existing national defense forces.
- Administration System Functional Authorities for Military Service
As provided in the Act, both administrative and military forces are placed under separate control systems based on the concept of cooperation. According to the relevant administrative system,this Ministry maintains the Service Administration Agency, the Military Service Department of the metropolitan government, and the Military Service Bureau (Section) at the county government level which handle routine matters concerning military personnel. These matters include for example, the draft, application for Substitute service, acquisitions, assignments, transportation, interests of military personnel, and matters, which pertain to control of military reserve forces. Meanwhile, the Ministry of National Defense, depending on its military requirements, maintains Army and Divisional Control District Headquarters to handle matters related to Quota of Military Personnel, Training Education, Draft and Mobilization.
- Military Service Operations
According to the Act and the Constitution of the Republic of China, any male citizen of the Republic of China is obligated duly to complete his military service:
- "The people are obligated by law to complete military service"...Article 20 of the ROC Constitution.
- "Each and every male citizen of the Republic of China is obligated to complete his military service as provided by law."...Article 1 of the Act.
- Exemption from Induction into the military is available to any male citizen who fails to qualify for military service according to relevant standards. This failure may be due to mental and/or physical handicaps or chronic diseases. Such people shall be exempted from performing their military service obligations.
- Prohibition of Induction occurs when any male citizen who is sentenced to imprisonment for more than five years or who has served a term in jail for three years or more. Such persons shall be prohibited from performing their military service obligations.
- Draft Procedures
The relevant draft law of the ROC requires that all draftees must report for duty at a designated time and place. It is further required that these men must be properly assigned to their service units according to their individual talents and specialties. Figure 6-1 shows the details of four major categories:
When Taiwanese men reach the drafting age of 19, they will undergo identity investigation and the procedure of draft inspection. The draft inspection includes the verification of service types、the classification of service branches and the physical exam determination of physical rating. After the physical rating, the service of enlisted men can be decided. You maybe in “reserve service” or“substitute service”. Or you may be a disqualified exempt. After being chosen, enlisted men will be drafted to report to the training center.
- New Procedures Concerning Physical Examination of Draftees
The Ministry has coordinated with the National Defense Ministry and also with the Department of Health in order to design new operational concepts related to physically challenged draftee's examinations. These new approaches were enacted in June 2001. It is vitally important to be certain that ROC government policies are followed very carefully. We have thus insured that accurate instruments and hospital equipment are utilized for these physical examinations.
- The Ministry of the Interior and the Department of Health are cooperating to ensure that there are fifty-three hospitals designated to perform draftee's physical examinations in coordination with the ROC National Health Insurance Plan.
- The Ministry of the Interior is coordinating with proper relevant medical organizations such as the National Defense Ministry and the Department of Health to empower an examination committee whose purpose is to examine the situations of those draftees who apply for changes in the results of their physical examinations. It is extremely important to ensure that there are very solid grounds for granting draft exemptions to any given individuals.
- In order to decrease the waste about the times of draftees apply for physical re-examination and medical source, before finishing university three months men must undergo physical examinations prior to entering the military.
- In order to simplify the administrative work involved, we cancel the physical examinations of reserve officers.
- Educational Backgrounds ; Physical Conditions of Draftees
Because of higher living standards, more universal education and advances in medical care, both educational backgrounds and physical conditions of drafted enlisted men (E.M.) in Taiwan have been improving during recent years. The general quality of the ROC E.M. meets our national requirements and also makes significant contributions to increasing the war readiness of the ROC national army. For details see Table
TABLE 6-2: Personal background Investigation of Enlisted Man by Education
As provided in Article 35 of the Act:”Any man reaching draft age for reserve service may be qualified for deferment for any of the following reasons”
These men however shall be immediately drafted once either cause for their deferment no longer exists.
- He is a currently a student at a public or an accredited private high school, its equivalent or higher institute; or
- He has been indicted for a crime subject to a minimum punishment of imprisonment or is currently serving his term in jail.
- Rights and Interests of Military Personnel
While he is defending the ROC people and the country the government shall protect the basic rights to which any citizen is entitled while doing his military service.(Please refer to Figure 6-2) As provided in Article 44 of the Act, any citizen performing his military service is entitled to the following rights:
TABLE 6-3: Personal background Investigation of Enlisted Man by Education 2001
|University College & Above
|Senior High School
|Junior High School
- His status immediately prior to being drafted must be preserved. That is, as a student, his registration or as an employee, his job record must remain intact. In the bsence of these conditions, the draftee is entitled to a preferential admission to an educational institute or to employment upon honorable discharge, retirement, demobilization, or having his name struck-off from the reserve list (upon reaching a certain age).
- Support from the ROC government to dependents of a given E.M.
- A draftee is entitled to access to education and to government support to return to his home after being injured or disabled during combat or otherwise while on duty.
- The government shall provide educational access and living support for the minor children of those E.M. who have died in combat or while otherwise on duty provided that the surviving family fails to provide the same.
- Any draftee who gives his life while in combat or otherwise on duty shall be entitled to proper burial, with a shrine erected in to him followed by a periodic memorial service, and/or postmortem promotion to honor him.
- A draftee is also entitled to any other decoration, relief, and favorable treatment as provided by relevant laws. According to existing procedures concerning the interests of the E.M., NT$10,000 will be paid as birth support to his dependents whose family is categorized under "poverty" status, and NT$25,000, burial support shall be paid.
The standards of lump-sum family allowances and living subsidies shall be NT$15,450 at grade A, NT$9,300 at grade B and NT$4,650 at grade C for one person.
- Management,Organization and Deployment of the R.O.C National Army
- Control: Local public offices of shiang (jen, shih or chiu) provide management of the national army under the supervision of their relevant municipal government or county (city) government. Information operation shall govern processing of data supported by manual operations. Each Public Office shall report by the end of each February to this Ministry and Ministry of National Defense the number of enlisted men in order for both ministries to have solid control over the number of draftees available for proper deployment.
- Functional Authorities: As provided by existing laws, any national army is obligated to answer any call for supporting military operations either in wartime or other extraordinary times of necessity. Duties of call and organizations of the national army shall be assigned by the Ministry of National Defense jointly with this Ministry. Whereas such deployment falls within the military command system, municipal governments and country (city) governments shall handle the organization, deployment and management of the national army according to relevant annual plans.
- Substitute Service
As provided in Article 24 of the Act Substitute Service may be made available without prejudice to then existing national defense forces in order supplement regular armed forces, to improve the quality of the army, and to ensure fair and just discharges of service obligations. Furthermore, according to Article 3 of the Provisions of Substitute Service Practice (the Provisions), enlisted men shall be assigned to requisition agencies to perform back-up forces in performing public affairs or community services.
There shall be a smooth implementation of professional training by the requisite agency immediately following basic military training. To this end expenditures shall be appropriated for both primary and secondary provisions as well as service ID information of the draftees involved. This implementation shall be completed between the requisite agency and the 192nd Brigade of the Army.
- Requisition Agency Annual Demands for Substitute Service
As provided in Article 4 of the Bylaws of the Provisions, relevant requisition agencies shall by the end of each January file applications for Substitute service back-up demand schedules for the next fiscal year and for four future years. This Ministry shall review these schedules and submit them to the Executive Yuan for approval before the end of each February.
- Application for Substitute Service by Draftees
Any enlisted man when rated as qualified for reserve service after his physical examination may within a specified time apply for performing Substitute service with the Military Service Section of the Public Office (of the shiang, jen, shih, or chiu) where his household is located. Furthermore, any man reaching draft age who as born in 1981 or after 1981 will be drafted into Substitute service if his physical condition is done determined.
- Substitute Service Draft
According to the Substitute service quota as approved by the Executive Yuan, the Ministry of the Interior shall prepare a draft plan by phase and make allotments for each municipal, and county (city) government to follow through correct draft arrangements and sequences. The purpose here shall be to enable enlisted men to report for the draft in correct phases.
- Selection & Assignment of Substitute Service
To make sure that each enlisted man taking Substitute service must be assigned to a post which best suits his talents and specialties, a selection shall be held during each phase for all enlisted men while staying in their basic military training centers in an open, fair and impartial manner according to their specialty and educational background before their military service. It is hoped that their abilities, academic histories, and specialties as civilians, as well as the demands of relevant requisition agencies shall all be satisfied. The number of Substitute service conditions by service are shown in Table 6-2.
- Take-over of Substitute Service E.M.
- Management of Substitute Service
- Each requisite agency shall set forth Guidelines for Management of Draftees for Substitute Service. The purpose shall be to take charge of the draftees assigned to this agency, which also must submit a copy of these Guidelines to the regulating authorities in this Ministry for future reference. Enlisted men drafted during Phases 4 to 6 of the Year 2001 Substitute service shall be consecutively assigned to each service agency upon completion of their professional training.
- To investigate the daily lives and service performances of those draftees taking Substitute service, Stage One interviews at each service agency were completed during the period from October 18, 2001 to November 8, 2001. The purpose of these interviews was to look for any problems, which might exist, and then to follow with recommended solutions for improving the functions of the Substitute service. These interviews were successfully completed thanks to the cooperation of the requisite agencies involved. We heard the opinions of draftees undergoing Substitute service and our fact-finding efforts penetrated deeply into those basic units involved. These interviews proved to be very helpful for the draftees in performing their duties and also in supervising these men.
- Remuneration, Regional Bonuses, Primary/Secondary Provisions, Insurance, Relief and Uniforms
- Draftees undergoing Substitute service are paid on a basis including salary, regional bonuses and primary/secondary provisions according to Article 8 of the Provisions Regulation.
- Salary:Paid in four terms, respectively: Earlier Service, Mid-term Service, Final Service and Control Cadre Service according to Payroll of Officers and Soldiers of Obligated Services as set forth by the Ministry of National Defense.
- Regional bonus: Paid according to Regional Bonus Payment Rules for Military Personnel under three levels, respectively, main-island, islet and high-mountain areas.
- Primary/Secondary Provisions: Whether or not meals will be provided is determined at the discretion of each requisite agency and the draftees involved who are provided either with meals or money on a case-by-case basis. However, meals are provided to all enlisted men while they are staying at their training centers.
- Uniforms: Must be provided by each requisite agency with the exception of uniforms for those draftees undergoing Substitute service in the Police (other than those who are assigned as resident guards at schools) and fire departments. In these cases, relevant uniforms are to be provided by these ministries.
- Once he reports to his training center, each draftee undergoing Substitute service is included the ROC National Health Insurance, general insurance and group accident insurance programs provided by the Ministry of the Interior. In case of injury, disability or death of the insured while in service, payment and relief will be made through negotiations involving The Ministry of the Interior based on relevant information furnished by the requisite agency where the insured served his duty.
- The Basic Military Training of Substitute Service
- According to the Article 20 of the Act and Article 13 of the Provisions Regulation, the Ministry coordinated the National Defense Ministry to do the basic military training of Substitute service, and designated the 192nd Brigade of the Army to train in the training center of Cheng Kung Mountain in Taichung. Over a period of six phases about 10,474 people reported to the training center during 2001, and accepted professional training of the requisite agency.
- This Ministry coordinated with the National Defense Ministry to design the thirty-nine-day programs of the basic military training of Substitute service. These programs include a military program, professional program, general program, political educational program, adjusted educational program, and urgent first-aid program. The National Defense Ministry trains these draftees to reach these goals through a combination of ”selection, training, and practice”.
- The Ministry of the Interior coordinated with the National Defense Ministry to issue ”The Basic Military Training of Substitute Service Plan”according to relevant laws. Thus this plan will be the standard of the basic military training of Substitute service.